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March 28th 2008 Fall Restraint vs Fall Arrest


Fall arrest & Fall restraint systems

It is important for you to understand the difference between a fall arrest system and fall restraint system. These are most commonly used in the construction industry, but may apply to many other situations where employees must work at heights.

FALL ARREST

It consists of an anchor point,

connectors,

body belt or body harness

And may include a lanyard,

deceleration device,

lifeline,

or suitable combinations of these.

The entire system must be capable of withstanding the tremendous impact forces involved in stopping or arresting the fall. The forces increase with the fall distance due to acceleration (a person without protection will free fall 4 feet in 1/2 second and 16 feet in 1 second!).

FALL RESTRAINT:

The most commonly utilized fall restraint system is a standard guardrail. A tie off system that "restrains" the employee from falling off an elevated working surface is another type of fall restraint. Occupational Health and Safety Act

1. Falling more than 3 metres.

2. Falling more than 1.2 metres, if the work area is used as a path for a wheelbarrow or similar equipment.

3. Falling into operating machinery.

4. Falling into water or another liquid.

5. Falling into or onto a hazardous substance or object.

6. Falling through an opening on a work surface. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 12; O. Reg. 85/04, s.4.

26.1

(2) Despite subsection (1), if it is not reasonably possible to install a guardrail system as that subsection requires, a worker shall be adequately protected by at least one of the following methods of fall protection:

1. A travel restraint system that meets the requirements of section 26.4.

2. A fall restricting system that meets the requirements of section 26.5.

3. A fall arrest system, other than a fall restricting system designed for use in wood pole climbing, that meets the requirements of section 26.6.

4. A safety net that meets the requirements of section 26.8. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 12; O. Reg. 85/04, s. 5 (1).

(3) The components of any system listed in subsection (2) shall be designed by a professional engineer in accordance with good engineering practice, and shall meet the requirements of any of the following National Standards of Canada standards that are applicable:

1. CAN/CSA-Z259.1-95 (R1999): Safety Belts and Lanyards.

2. CAN/CSA-Z259.2.1-98: Fall Arresters, Vertical Lifelines and Rails.

3. CAN/CSA-Z259.2.2-98: Self-Retracting Devices for Personal Fall-Arrest Systems.

4. CAN/CSA-Z259.2.3-99: Descent Control Devices.

5. CAN/CSA-Z259.10-M90 (R1998): Full Body Harnesses.

6. CAN/CSA-Z259.11-M92 (R1998): Shock Absorbers for Personal Fall-Arrest Systems.

7. CAN/CSA-Z259.14-01: Fall Restrict Equipment for Wood Pole Climbing.

8. CAN/CSA-Z259.12-01: Connecting Components for Personal Fall Arrest Systems (PFAS). O. Reg. 85/04, s. 5 (2).

 

26.4

(2) The full body harness or safety belt shall be attached by a lifeline or lanyard to a fixed support that meets the requirements of section 26.7. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(3) The travel restraint system shall be inspected by a competent worker before each use. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(4) If a component of the travel restraint system is found to be defective on inspection, the defective component shall immediately be taken out of service. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

Fall arrest system, other than a fall restricting system designed for use in wood pole climbing, requirements .  26.7 (1) A permanent anchor system shall be used as the fixed support in a fall arrest system, fall restricting system or travel restraint system if the following conditions are met:

1. The anchor system has been installed according to the Building Code.

2. It is safe and practical to use the anchor system as the fixed support. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(2) If the conditions set out in subsection (1) are not met, a temporary fixed support shall be used that meets the following requirements:

1. Subject to paragraph 2, a support used in a fall arrest system shall be capable of supporting a static force of at least 8 kilonewtons without exceeding the allowable unit stress for each material used.

2. If a shock absorber is also used in the fall arrest system, the support shall be capable of supporting a static force of at least 6 kilonewtons without exceeding the allowable unit stress for each material used.

3. Subject to paragraph 4, a support used in a fall restricting system must be capable of supporting a static force of at least 6 kilonewtons without exceeding the allowable unit stress for each material used.

4. Paragraph 3 does not apply to a support that is used in accordance with the manufacturer’s written instructions and is adequate to protect a worker.

5. A support used in a travel restraint system shall be capable of supporting a static force of at least 2 kilonewtons without exceeding the allowable unit stress for each material used. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(3) Despite the requirements listed in subsection (2), the support capacity of a temporary fixed support used in a fall protection system may be determined by dynamic testing in accordance with good engineering practice to ensure that the temporary fixed support has adequate capacity to arrest a worker’s fall. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(4) A fixed support shall not have any sharp edges that could cut, chafe or abrade the connection between it and another component of the system. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(2) The following requirements apply to a lanyard or a lifeline:

1. It shall not be used in such a way that it is likely to be cut, chafed or abraded.

2. It shall not be subjected to extreme temperature, flame, abrasive or corrosive materials or other hazards that may damage it.

3. The free end of the lanyard or lifeline shall be kept clear of equipment and machinery. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(3) Only one person at a time may use a lanyard. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(4) The connecting ends of a lanyard shall be wrapped around a protective thimble and securely fastened with a swaged fitting or eye splice supplied by the manufacturer of the lanyard. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(5) A horizontal or vertical lifeline shall be kept free from splices or knots, except knots used to connect it to a fixed support. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(6) Only one person at a time may use a vertical lifeline. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(7) A vertical lifeline shall,

(a) extend to the ground; or

(b) have a positive stop that prevents the rope grab or other similar device from running off the end of the lifeline. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(8) The following requirements apply to a horizontal lifeline system:

1. It shall be designed by a professional engineer in accordance with good engineering practice.

2. The design may be a standard design or a custom design.

3. The design shall,

i. show the arrangement of the system including the anchorage or fixed support system,

ii. indicate the components used,

iii. state the number of workers that can safely be attached to it,

iv. set out instructions for installation or erection, and

v. show the design loads for the system.

4. The system shall be installed or erected, and maintained, in accordance with the professional engineer’s design.

5. Before each use, the system shall be inspected by a professional engineer or a competent worker designated by a supervisor.

6. The constructor shall keep the design at the project while the system is in use. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

 

26.9 (1) This section applies to a lanyard or lifeline that is part of a travel restraint system or a fall arrest system. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(1) A fall arrest system shall consist of a full body harness with adequate attachment points and a lanyard equipped with a shock absorber or similar device. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

 

26.6

(2) The fall arrest system shall be attached by a lifeline or by the lanyard to an independent fixed support that meets the requirements of section 26.7. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(3) The fall arrest system shall be arranged so that a worker cannot hit the ground or an object or level below the work. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(4) Despite subsection (1), the fall arrest system shall not include a shock absorber if wearing or using one could cause a worker to hit the ground or an object or level below the work. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(5) The fall arrest system shall not subject a worker who falls to a peak fall arrest force greater than 8 kilonewtons. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(6) The fall arrest system shall be inspected by a competent worker before each use. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(7) If a component of the fall arrest system is found to be defective on inspection, the defective component shall immediately be taken out of service. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

(8) If a worker who is using the fall arrest system falls, the system shall be immediately removed from service and shall not be used again by a worker unless all components of the system have been certified by the manufacturer as being safe for re-use. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.

 

Travel restraint system requirements . (1) A travel restraint system shall consist of a full body harness with adequate attachment points or a safety belt. O. Reg. 145/00, s. 14.
(1) A worker shall be adequately protected by a guardrail system that meets the requirements of subsections 26.3 (2) to (8). O. Reg. 145/00, s. 12.

 

 

ONTARIO REGULATION 213/91

Section 26

26. Sections 26.1 to 26.9 apply where a worker is exposed to any of the following hazards:

A fall restraint system consists of the equipment used to keep an employee from reaching a fall point, such as the edge of a roof or the edge of an elevated working surface.
: According to the definition in the Federal OSHA standard, a personal fall arrest system means a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level.




January 25th 2008 Fixed Ladder Information


Steel ladders permanently fixed to structures such as stacks and silos are designed for service after construction is complete but are often used by work crews during construction. If the ladders are vertical and there is a risk of falling more than 3 metres (10 feet), a body harness and lifeline, or body harness and channel lock device, should be used by workers climbing up and down or working from the ladders. These ladders must have safety cages starting no more than 2.2 metres (7 feet) from the bottom of the ladder 

and extending at least 0.9 metres (3 feet) above the top landing. Rest platforms with ladder offsets are required at intervals no more than 9 metres (30 feet) apart where a fall arrest system is not used. Vertical ladders permanently fixed to structures should comply with Ontario Ministry of Labour data sheet 2-04.

1. Fixed access ladder installations must be periodically inspected by a competent person for rust, corrosion and structural integrity, and must be maintained in a good condition, not likely to endanger any worker. These inspections should be conducted at least once per year.

2. Records of inspections and maintenance to fixed access ladder systems should be maintained






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